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Industrial Radiography is the use of ionizing radiation to view objects in a way that cannot be seen otherwise. It is not to be confused with the use of ionizing radiation to change or modify objects; radiography's purpose is strictly viewing. Industrial radiography has grown out of engineering, and is a major element of nondestructive testing. It is a method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short X-rays and gamma rays to penetrate various materials.
From traditional non-destructive testing, gauging, detection and modification of materials to in-line, high-speed inspection.
Industrial radiography uses two sources of radiation: X-radiation and Gamma radiation. X-rays and Gamma rays differ only in their source of origin. X-rays are produced by an X-ray generator, and Gamma radiation is the product of radioactive atoms. An in depth discussion on radiation production can be found in other areas of this site, but will be reviewed briefly in the following sections.
Production of X-Rays
There are two different atomic processes that can produce X-ray photons. One process produces Bremsstrahlung radiation and the other produces K-shell or characteristic emission. Both processes involve a change in the energy state of electrons. X-rays are generated when an electron is accelerated and then made to rapidly decelerate, usually due to interaction with other atomic particles.
Introducing the LABMeV, the third generation of miniature linear accelerator technology. This compact solid-state high-energy X-ray system is a user-friendly solution to the laboratory NDT, QA/QC, R&D and Homeland Security applications.
LABMeV is a powerful, compact, reliable and easy to operate S-Band readiographic linear accelerator now available in 4.0, 6.0 and 9.0 MeV. The modulator design of th system features a separate X-ray Head, RF Head, Modulator, Control, and Water Circulating Unit. The X-ray Head is connected to the RF Head by sections of flexible RF waveguide.
LABMeV features a versatile X-ray Head robotic manipulator with a 12-foot hydraulic extension arm for the precise, effortless accelerator positioning. The robotic arm folds away when not in use and is mounted on a wheeled cart that also carries the RF Head and Water Circulating Unit. A single umbilical connects this assembly to a remote Modulator/ Power Supply Unit with a PLC touch screen Control Console.
LABMeV features an advanced PLC touch screen Control Console that makes this linear accelerator system as easy to operate as an ATM! The PLC provides all system controls and displays system operating status, safety interlock status, dose rate and total dose, plus real-time fault diagnostics all in a 10"x8" plasma screen. The Control Key and an Emergency Off pushbutton are mounted on a panel below the PLC display.
How the LABMeV Works
The Modulator/Power Supply Unit converts 220VAC 3-phase electrical power to high voltage DC pulse power. A solid-sate Thyratron provides high speed switching for a magnetron RF source in the RF head and an electron gun in the accelerator. The magnetron, electron gun and target accelerator are cooled by the Water Ciculating Unit. The inujected electrons are accelerated to relativistic speed in the accelerator structure and generate high energy X-ray as they impinge no a Tungsten target wiht a <2mm spot size. A Tungsten coolimator is used to attenuate and shape the beam.
The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread throughout the United States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike.
Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities.
Radiography is of vital importance in non-destructive testing. Radiography ensures the integrity of equipment and structures such as vessels, pipes, welded joints, castings and other devices. The integrity of this equipment affects not only the safety and quality of the products used by workers, but also the safety and quality of the environment for workers and the public at large.
Eltron Beam Energy (MeV) 4.0 6.0 9.0
Max. Dose Rate (R/m/m) 400 850 3000
Target Spot Size (mm) < 2 < 2 < 2
Radiation Cone (degrees) 30 30 30
Half Value Layer, Steel (mm) 24 30
Max. penetration, Steel (mm) 280 356 610
Duty Factor (%) 100 100 100
Weights and Dimensions
4 MeV X-Ray Head
6 MeV X-Ray Head
9 MeV X-Ray Head
Water Circulating Unit
Control Consule (PLC)
Flexible RF Waveguide